Petroleum systems divided into two basic things. They are Elements and Processes. First one is Elements that include Source Rock, Migration Route, Reservoir Rock, Seal Rock and Trap. On the other side is Processes which is important thing too that include Generation, Migration, Accumulation, Preservation, and Timing. In Petroleum system, timing is critical because source will be generate to reservoir and seal through migration process. And then, there are accumulation and preservation until it will be trapped.
There are also basic concepts that every geologist or geophysicist have to know. Like Geodynamic, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Rocks cycle, Petroleum Sedimentary Environments, etc. We also have to know effect of weathering, gradient, and distance from Source-Rock on Clast size, Shape, Sorting, and Composition in Petroleum Systems. There are two types how Clastics Sedimentary Rock are formed, Close to Source and Far from Source. Geologic Laws and Missing Strata are the next things we can’t never to forget. Geologic Laws that covers Superposition, Original Horizontality, Original Continuity, Uniformitarianism, Cross-Cutting Relationship, Inclusions and Faunal Succession but Missing Strata is everything about Unconformity and Correlation. In Correlation, we have to explain the different between sequence of sedimentary rock with complete record of deposition and real sequence of rock in field like sequence that shown a break in the record as indicated by correctable fossils that confirm there is disconformity. Then, Lithological Interpretation which is describe of sedimentary rocks. There are three type of sedimentary rocks in Petroleum Systems, Reservoir, Seal, and Source. We have to know and to locate where Reservoir, Seal, and Source is. Is there one of them, two of them, both of them and maybe none of them. So, we must analysis deeply to get the best interpretation until we can to locate it.
We have to realize that there are three temporary Aspects in Petroleum Systems which are Age, Critical Time and Preservation. We also have to get Geographic Border and Stratigraphy Borders of Petroleum System field with mapping. Basin, Systems, Play and Prospect are the main reason Petroleum System is risky exploration. Probably, Temperature and Time of Source Rock is also play main role in Petroleum Systems. Reservoir-Clastics Rock like Sandstone, Limestone, and Fracture Rocks is the most important rock that act as Reservoir. There are two physic characteristics that indicate whether a good reservoir or bad reservoir, Porosity and Permeability. Porosity divide into two part, total porosity and effective porosity.