Tectonic and Sedimentary Basin

On 14th November 2014, AAPG SC UI conducted course titled “Tectonic and Sedimentary Basin”.

Previously, not only Alfred Wegener who propounded about tectonic movements in the earth. Many scientists have propounded their opinions about what is happening to the earth itself. Upon all the opinions of other scientists, conducted globally approaches that creates hypothesis that eventually reach a global agreement.

Tectonic history of science, has existed in the days 400 years BC originated from Aristotle who first had a hypothesis about the geology of the earth. In the end, followed by other scientists as follows:

400 BC

Aristotle: Some of the first geological thoughts

Middle Ages

Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (AD 973-1048)

17th Century

The birth of modern geology  Nicholas Steno

1741

The National Museum of Natural History in France, the first institution to taught geology as a field of study

18th Century

Neptunist Vs Plutonist by Warner, Hutton, Lyell

19th Century

Industry revolutionary and imperialism: Stratigraphy, First geological survey, Geologic time scale

20th Century

PT & Continental Drift theory by Alfred Wegener, F Taylor, Robert S. Dietz & Harry H. Hess: seafloor spreading.

The existence of tectonic movements caused by the dynamics of the earth which are the topography, earthquakes and volcanic activity. Starting from the speculation of origin of the mountains, tectonic science was born. Tectonic not only can interpret the origin of the mountain but also presence of structures on the surface of the earth, such as continents, ocean basins, oceanic ridges, oceanic trenches, island arcs, high plateaus etc.

Geologist also use tectonic science to seek natural resources such as oil and gas. Investigating oil and gas, usually looking on the form of hollow structure. In case of sedimentation on the concave surface called geosyncline.

In 1858, Snider-Pellegrini made a model of separate continents before as it is now. Snider-Pellegrini has a hypothesis that was originally on the earth there is a big land, but due to the movement of tectonic plates, the large mainland broke as at present and will continue to move. This theory is called the theory of Continental Drift and Plate Tectonic.

continental drift

 

In addition, there is also Plume Tectonic theory that the initial mechanism caused by tectonic movements in the Earth’s mantle plume. The movement of the mantle plume accompanied by volcanic activity, propagate to the surface, causing the surface to form folds. This movement is called neovulkanisme. Neovulkanisme acts as a data recorder movement of tectonic plates.

In addition to the formation of folds on the surface of the earth, tectonic plate movement also causes the surface of the ocean floor to be fractured (sea floor spreading). It is known that the Americas and Africa before is the one land, but because of the movement of tectonic plates resulting in the occurrence of sea floor spreading, that the American and African continents separate and move away from each other.

There are six categories of tectonics:

CONTINENT AND OCEAN BASIN

  1. Cratons (stable continents)
  2. Ocean Basins

PLATE BOUNDARIES

  1. Divergent Plate Boundaries
  2. Convergent Plate Boundaries
  3. Transform Plate Boundaries

HOT SPOTS

  1. Hot spots

Tuzo Wilson is a scientist who made the Wilson cycle. J. Tuzo Wilson was the first to make the connection between sea floor spreading at subduction zones.

subduction zone subduction zone 2

In geology, there are several margins:

1. Passive Continental Margin

Located on the boundary of the continental crust and oceanic crust. In this area there are many faults caused by different forces.

passive continental margin

2. Active Continental Margin

Located on the boundary of the continental crust and oceanic crust. In this area there are many faults due to subduction zones. In addition there is collision between the plates.

active continental margin

Continent originated from oceanic crust that rises to the surface. In Indonesia there is land that was originally from the bottom of the ocean, which is Papua. Here is a conceptual model to determine the geological and tectonic geological structure.

conceptual model geology